Law of Supply and Demand in Economics – How it works?

Are you curious to know How the law of supply and demand works in Economics? The supply- and demand law combines two fundamental economic trade ideas to describe how variations in the price of a resource, item, or service affect its supply and demand.

Whenever the price goes up, demand decreases while supply grows. On the contrary, as the price declines, demand increases and the supply falls.

Degrees of supply and demand for different prices can be shown as curves on a chart. Such curves intersect at the equilibrium price, sometimes referred to as the market clearing price, which occurs when supply and demand are equal. This intersection serves as a representation of the market’s system for determining prices.

The description, influencing variables, legal definition, categories, and instances of supply and demand in an industry are all covered in the article that follows.

  • According to the law of demand, the demand for an item or resource will go down as its price goes up and up as its supply decreases.
  • But on the other end, lower prices tend to diminish the supply of an economic item, while higher costs are likely to boost it, as determined by the law of supply.
  • A graphic depiction of the economy price is where the curves of supply and demand meet, which aids in balancing them.
  • The degree to which fluctuations in cost are translated into fluctuations in supply and demand is known as the item’s price elasticity. The trend for necessities is somewhat less responsive to variations in price.

Understanding More About Supply- and Demand Law

It might seem clear that in each selling transaction, the price matches supply and demand to satisfy both the purchaser and the seller. For hundreds of years, people have studied how supply, demand, and price interact in a (somewhat) free market.

Many medieval philosophers saw a distinction between a “fair” value based on costs and reasonable profits, including one at which the sale was conducted, much like current opponents of market pricing for some goods. The research of Enlightenment economic experts who investigated and described the link is the foundation of our knowledge of pricing as a signaling mechanism balancing supply and demand.

It’s crucial to note that supply and demand may not always react to price changes correspondingly. Price elasticity describes how much an item’s demand or supply is impacted by price fluctuations. Demand variations for items with a high price elasticity will be more pronounced. Contrarily, because people can’t live without them easily, the price of needs will be relatively inelastic, which means that demand will fluctuate less in response to price fluctuations.

Understanding More About Supply- and Demand Law

Price determination dependent on the demand and supply curves presupposes an open market where buyers and sellers may choose whether to engage in business or not based on the price. Taxes and regulations, supplier market power, the presence of alternative products, and economic cycles are only a few examples of the variables that might change the form or location of supply or demand curves. However, the commodities impacted by these external influences continue to be susceptible to the basic principles of supply and demand as long as both buyers and sellers have agency. Let’s now think about how both supply and demand react to price changes in turn.

Principle of Demand:

The law of demand entails that, keeping all other things equal, demand for a commodity fluctuates inversely to its price. In certain texts, the degree of demand decreases as the price increases.

Demand for a given commodity or service drops when prices rise. It is because customers’ purchasing power depends on their limited resources. On the contrary, demand rises as the product becomes more affordable.

Demand curves consequently trend down from left to right. The income impact causes significant changes in demand that occur as a result of a product’s price concerning consumers’ resources or income.

There are, of course, exceptions. One is Giffen items, commonly inexpensive essentials referred to as subpar goods. When incomes increase, demand for inferior items declines as people switch to higher-quality options. However, the substitution effect causes a product to become a Giffen good when its price increases and its demand increases due to customers using more of it instead of more expensive alternatives.

Veblen’s goods are at the other extreme of the wealth and income spectrum. These are luxury items that appreciate in value and thus produce higher demand levels as their prices grow. Mostly, the price of these luxury products signifies (and maybe even increases) the owner’s status. Thorstein Veblen, an economist, and sociologist created the idea and came up with the phrase “conspicuous consumption” to characterize it. Hence, Veblen’s products are named after him.

Principle of Supply:

The amount provided and price fluctuations for a commodity are related to the law of supply. The link between the supply principle and the principle of demand is direct rather than the inverse. Like the price goes up, the amount given climbs as well. Overall, reduced costs are the result of decreased supply.

Given that their costs aren’t growing as rapidly, manufacturers tend to produce more while prices are higher. Reduced price causes a cost squeeze that limits supply. Supply slopes are, as a result, upwards and slope from left to right.

Similar to how supply restrictions can affect demand, supply shocks can result in a disproportionate price shift for a commodity that is necessary for production.

What Precisely is an Economic Equilibrium?

A market-based economy is in a condition of economic equilibrium when factors like supply and demand are in balance. When an economic variable is in equilibrium, it is in its unaltered condition, provided no outside forces are present.

What Precisely is an Economic Equilibrium

The Concept of Economic Equilibrium:

Competing economic variables gravitate toward their default condition to create economic equilibrium.

The market-based economy is a system in which the forces of demand and supply dictate capital distribution along with general consumer patterns. Economics is the study of economies, or the techniques and organization of the manufacture, transportation, and consumption of commodities and services.

Due to its superior efficiency over all other economic structures, practically every economy in modern civilization is set up as a market-based economy. Capital is allocated efficiently without the help of an outside institution. It demonstrates the effectiveness of supply and demand factors.

An economic equilibrium is when market forces are in balance and current prices stable between equal supply and demand.

Prices serve as a gauge for the state of the economy’s balance. When prices are excessively high, less of a given good or service is wanted, which forces providers to cut their prices.

But on the other side, if costs are too low, demand for a particular good or service will rise to the level that producers will either expand output or raise prices.

In reality, economic equilibrium is just a theory. Because markets are dynamic and always changing, they never completely attain equilibrium.

Equilibrium as opposed to Disequilibrium:

The idea of equilibrium is purely theoretical. A dynamic factor will constantly prevent an economy from achieving and maintaining this balanced state.

Disequilibrium refers to the absence of equilibrium in the economy. Realistically, we are constantly in a disequilibrium that is moving in the direction of a theoretical equilibrium. Disequilibrium may, however, become more evident under some circumstances.

For instance, a nation’s protectionist policies that impose tariffs and quotas cause the global markets to experience extended disequilibrium because they cap the demand for particular items.

Equilibrium Price:

The equilibrium point sometimes referred to as a market-clearing price, is the value upon which the supply and demand balance establishes a market equilibrium that is acceptable to both purchasers and sellers.

At the intersection position of an upward-rising supply curve and a slightly downward slope demand curve, demand and supply in terms of the quantity of the commodities are balanced, leaving neither an overcapacity nor an unfulfilled demand. The size of the market-clearing price depends on the position and shape of the matching demand curves and supply curves. They are affected by a number of the following factors.

Factors Influencing Supply

When product prices are below manufacturing costs in businesses where suppliers are unwilling to take a loss, supply tends to drop until it is nil.

There are many factors influencing price elasticity. These include the number of sellers, production capacity, and the competitive dynamics of the business. Taxes and rules may also be important. Additionally, how readily supply can be raised or decreased can also influence it.

Factors Influencing Supply

These elements may have an impact on supply:

  • Production Potential
  • Price of Production
  • Competitors
  • Materials Readily Available
  • Supply Networks

Production Potential:

The ratio of product output to resource intake is known as production capacity. The firm will expand the output to supply additional supplies in the event of a rise in the market’s demand.

Price of Production:

Manufacturing costs include things like supplies, labor expenditures, and utilities like power and water. The market price of the product will rise if the manufacturing expenses are high. The supply will rise if the market can support high pricing. It will result in a drop in supply if it can’t.


Any business that offers the same good or service at a comparable cost is considered a competitor. If customers choose alternatives, opponents could make it challenging for a business to maintain a supply of goods at an affordable price. To get a stronger position in the market, they could cut output or switch to other products.

Materials Readily Available:

The availability of low-cost raw materials can aid in boosting production and product supply. The output will decline, and reduced supply will hit the market if raw resources are hard to come by or are too expensive.

Supply Networks:

At every point of the manufacturing process, from obtaining raw materials to developing the product to transferring them in the market-bound phase, the manufacturer should have a well-managed, reasonably priced, and dependable supply chain in place. As a result, the market supply will be effective in meeting customer demand.

Demand-Related Factors

Among the most significant factors influencing demand are consumer wealth, tastes, and readiness to switch from one product to another.

Since the marginal value of commodities decreases as the amount possessed rises, consumer choices will rely in part on an item’s market penetration. The first automobile has a greater impact on people’s lives than the 5th addition to the fleet, and the TV in the living room is more helpful than the fourth for the garage.

Listed below are a few elements that influence demand:

  • Product cost
  • Buyer revenue
  • Customer preference
  • Customer anticipation
  • Available alternatives
  • Supplementary goods
  • Market volume

Product Cost:

The demand from consumers for a commodity declines as its price rises. Less of the more costly item will be purchased, and consumers will search for alternatives that are less expensive.

Buyer Revenue:

The purchasing power and demand for a product will depend on the buyer’s income. Demand and purchasing power will rise in response to greater income levels. Whereas these two factors will fall in response to lower income levels. Additionally, there is a connection between revenue and the caliber of goods.

With just a rise in income, demand for quality items will grow, while demand for less desirable things will fall. However, if income declines, there will be less of a need for luxury things and more of a want for cheap ones.

Customer Preference:

Sometimes, trends and social changes in habits and conventions influence the customer’s preferences. As a result, demand for popular items increases.

Customer Anticipation:

Demand may increase if consumers believe a product will soon be rare, unobtainable, or more costly. There is a clear link between customer orders and upcoming demand since, relying on their predictions, they will purchase and store more of it now.

Available Alternatives:

The demand for alternatives will rise if a specific commodity’s price rises. For example, if you consistently purchase a particular brand of cereal and its cost rises to the point that it is unaffordable, you can start purchasing a comparable, less costly brand of cereal. As a result, there will be a greater need for readily available and less costly cereal.

Supplementary Goods:

When two items are complimentary, a rise in price for one might result in a decline in demand for the other. This is because using both items together will be challenging due to the price rise. For instance, the cost of using a printer would increase if printing ink cartridge prices increased exponentially, reducing the demand for printers.

Market Volume:

The number of consumers who buy the items that are offered depends on the size of the market. There will be fewer customers and less demand for the goods if the market is tiny. More people will purchase the items as the market grows, increasing demand.

The demand for goods from a particular age group typically grows with a rise in the market of purchasers of that age. For instance, if birth rates rise in a certain region, it will result in a rise in demand for infant food and related goods.

What Is a Straightforward Justification for the Law of Supply and Demand?

The law of supply and demand answers any questions you may have about how to balance a product’s supply and demand or how to determine market prices. Supply grows as a result of higher prices, while demand declines. Reduced costs increase demand while reducing supply. The market-clearing price is a price at which both supply and demand are equal.

The Law of Supply and Demand: Why Is It Important?

The Law of Supply and Demand Why Is It Important

Because it aids in understanding and forecasting market situations, the Law of Demand and Supply is crucial for investors, business owners, and economists. For instance, a firm considering raising the price of a product will normally anticipate a drop in demand as a result. To decide whether to move forward despite this expectation, the corporation will attempt to assess the relative prices and replacement impact.

Frequently Ask Questions (FAQs)

What does economics’ law of supply and demand entail?

The link between producers and consumers of a good or service is fundamental in economics. For example, when the value is high, producers are prone to increase their output. Whereas when the value is low, the output declines.

Are there any fundamental supply and demand laws?

When the availability is steady, an increase in demand causes the equilibrium price and quantity to increase. Whereas, a decrease in demand causes the equilibrium price and quantity supply to decrease. Meanwhile, when demand is steady, a rise in supply results in a price drop, and vice versa.

What is a case when the law of supply and demand is in action?

In accordance with competitive pricing, a seller decides to set the price of their goods at $10 and enjoys a gratifying level of market demand. He increased the price after a year while none of his rivals did. As a result, demand decreased since no one was interested in expensive goods.


Since supply and demand concepts apply to the currency market, many traders analyze supply and demand for a specific currency at a given time to predict whether its value will increase or decrease. There are many benefits to using support and resistance levels in the Supply and Demand trading strategy. But just like any skill, it needs to be developed and polished. There are numerous restrictions to be aware of but learning how to deal with them all takes time.

Saman Ali

Saman Ali is a Professional Financial Researcher, Quantitative Analyst and an Experienced Writer for more than 5 years. Saman’s main passion is for Cryptocurrencies, Stocks, Forex and Blockchain Technology. She holds an MBA in Finance and has specializations in producing high quality content about Cryptocurrencies, FX, Broker’s review, Price Predictions, Fundamental & Technical Analysis, and Educational Content.

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